Speaking of transport, one of my spies has given me
inside info on this whole Enron scandal.
Andersen has been working with ADIC (Advanced Digital Information
Corp.), Enron, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and lawyers to
recover lost electronic documents. Andersen has a backup strategy that
includes a "byte-level differential backup" of all employee laptops
into a "data vault" whenever they touch the network. This corporate
e-mail and memo police department is mysteriously called DREAD.
So Andersen can be expected to fully disclose, even if Enron employees
are handy with the delete key. Meanwhile, Andersen people
still have a sense of humor. The company needed to ship one
of the ADIC units off-site for data restoration and packing materials
were short. The Andersen guy suggested there should be plenty of
shredded paper around to do the job.
The lawyers in the room didn't find that as funny as I do.
This is an actual question on a University of Washington physics mid-term exam.
Support your answer with a proof.
Most of the students wrote proofs of their beliefs using Boyles Law (gas cools off when it expands and heats up when it is compressed) or some variant. One student, however, wrote the following:
"First, we need to know how the mass of Hell is changing in time. So, we need to know the rate that souls are moving into Hell and the rate they are leaving. I think that we can safely assume that once a soul goes to Hell, it will not leave. Therefore, no souls are leaving. As for how many souls are entering Hell, let's look at the different religions that exist in the world today. Some of these religions state that if you are not a member of their religion, you will go to Hell. Since there are more than one of these religions and since people do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all people and all souls go to Hell. With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number of souls in Hell to increase exponentially.
Now, we look at the rate of change of the volume in Hell because Boyle's Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in Hell to stay the same, the volume of Hell has to expand as souls are added. This gives two possibilities:
So which is it? If we accept the postulate given to me by Ms Therese Banyan during my Freshman year, "That it will be a cold day in Hell before I sleep with you," and take into account the fact that I still have not succeeded in that area, then (2) cannot be true, and so Hell is exothermic."
The student got the only A.
The temperature of Heaven can be rather accurately computed. Our authority is the Bible: Isaiah 30:26 reads, "Moreover, the light of the Moon shall be as the light of the Sun and the light of the Sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days." Thus Heaven receives from the Moon as much radiation as we do from the Sun, and in addition 7 times 7 (49) times as much as the Earth does from the Sun, or 50 times in all. The light we receive from the Moon is 1/10,000 of the light we receive from the Sun, so we can ignore that. With these figures we can compute the temperature of Heaven.
The radiation falling on Heaven will heat it to the point where the heat lost by radiation is just equal to the heat received by radiation, i.e., Heaven loses 50 times as much heat as the Earth by radiation. Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law for radiation,
(H/E)^4 = 50
where E is the absolute temperature of the earth (300K),
gives H, the temperature of Heaven, as 798K (525 C).
The exact temperature of Hell cannot be computed ... [However] Revelations 21:8 says "But the fearful, and unbelieving ... shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone." A lake of molten brimstone (or sulphur) means that its temperature must be at or below the boiling point, 444.6 C.
We have, then, that Heaven, at 525 C is hotter than Hell at 445 C.
From "Applied Optics" vol. 11, A14, 1972
From "A random walk in science", Ed E Mendoza 1973
Based on an unoriginal email forwarded by Richard Walters, January 1999.